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Vol. 31. Núm. 6.
Páginas 280-286 (Junio - Julio 1995)
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Vol. 31. Núm. 6.
Páginas 280-286 (Junio - Julio 1995)
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Mediadores de la inflamación (proteína catiónica del eosinófilo, ECP) en población normal y pacientes con asma bronquial o rinitis alérgica
Mediators of inflammation (eosinophilic cationic protein, ECP) in the normal population and in patients with bronchial asthma or allergic rhinitis
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F.J. Álvarez Gutiérrez*, J.A. Rodríguez Portal, F. Valenzuela Mateos, F. Capote Gil, R. Sánchez Gil, J. Castillo Gómez
Servicio de Neumología. Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío. Sevilla
Información del artículo

Se analizaron los niveles en suero de proteína catiónica del eosinófilo (ECP), una de las 4 proteínas mayores que se encuentra en el eosinófilo y que es liberada al medio extracelular tras la activación del mismo actuando como mediador inflamatorio. Para ello realizamos un estudio prospectivo en el que analizamos los sueros de 139 personas: un grupo control de población general compuesto por 53 personas y un grupo de 86 pacientes consecutivos con asma bronquial (n=69) o rinitis alérgica sin ningún síntoma bronquial añadido (n=17). En el grupo de pacientes asmáticos se estableció la severidad clínica según el método propuesto por Aas (Aas score), teniendo en cuenta los síntomas y medicación recibida en el último año y dividimos el asma en leve, moderada o grave, siguiendo los criterios del último Consenso Internacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento del Asma. Se estimó la situación atópica mediante la realización de tests cutáneos por el método de Prick. El nivel de ECP en el grupo control fue de 9,34±5,76μg/1, mientras que en la población global de pacientes era de 17,59±16,85μg/1, existiendo diferencias significativas entre los 2 grupos (p < 0,001). La media en los pacientes riníticos fue de 14,76±10,94μg/1, mientras que en el de asmáticos fue de 18,29±18μg/1, existiendo en ambos casos diferencias significativas respecto al grupo control (p < 0,03 y p < 0,001, respectivamente). Los niveles según los grados de gravedad establecidos en el momento de la revisión y la distinta sensibilización alergénica mostraron diferencias significativas con respecto al grupo control para todos los grupos, aunque con niveles medios bajos en el grupo de asmas graves que habían realizado tratamiento con corticoides inhalados.

Por último encontramos correlación lineal significativa entre los niveles de ECP y la cifra de eosinófilos (coeficiente de Pearson=0,32; p < 0,003). Concluimos que existen diferencias significativas en los niveles de ECP entre la población normal y los asmáticos o riníticos estudiados, así como en los distintos grados de gravedad clínica y sensibilización alergénica establecidos en el momento de la revisión.

Palabras clave:
Inflamación bronquial
Asma
Eosinófilo
Proteína catiónica del eosinófilo

We analyzed serum levels of eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), one of the 4 main eosinophilic proteins; ECP is released from an activated cell and acts as a mediator of inflammation. Serum samples from 139 persons were studied prospectively. Fifty-three individuals from the general population provided the control group. Eighty-six consecutive patients were also studied: 69 with bronchial asthma and 17 with allergic rhinitis and no signs of asthma. The level of severity of disease was established in the asthmatics by the method proposed by Aas (Aas score), based on symptoms and medications received within the last year. We also classified these patients as having mild, moderate or severe asthma according to the latest criteria issued by the International Consensus for Diagnosis and Treatment of Asthma. Atopic status was estimated by skin Prick tests. ECP levels in the control group (9.34±5.76μg/1) were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than those of the total population of patients (17.59±16.85μg/1). The mean for patients with rhinitis was 14.76±10.94μg/1, whereas it was 18.29±18μg/1 in the asthmatics; the levels for both groups were statistically different from that of the control group (p < 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively). Levels by degress of severity established at the time of revision and by sensitivity to allergens were also significantly different from the level of the control group, although the mean levels were low in the group of severely affected patients who had received treatment with inhaled corticoids.

Finally, we found significant linear correlation between ECP levels and the level of eosinophils (Pearson coefficient=0.32; p < 0.003). We conclude that there are significant differences in ECP levels between the normal population and the patients with asthma or rhinitis studied, and that there are also significant differences based on degree of clinical severity and allergic sensitivity established at the time of revision.

Key words:
Bronchial inflammation
Asthma
Eosinophil
Eosinophilic cationic protein
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