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Vol. 60. Issue 4.
Pages 200-206 (April 2024)
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Vol. 60. Issue 4.
Pages 200-206 (April 2024)
Original Article
Pulmonary Function in People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Meta-Analysis
Jesús Díez-Manglanoa,b,
Corresponding author

Corresponding author.
, Esther Del Corral-Beamontea
a Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Royo Villanova, Zaragoza, Spain
b Department of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Spain
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Tables (3)
Table 1. Characteristics of the included studies.
Table 2. Subgroup analysis.
Table 3. Sensitivity analysis.
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Additional material (1)

HIV can infect bronchial epithelial cells rendering individuals susceptible to lung damage. Our objective was to determine the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on pulmonary function tests.


We performed a meta-analysis after conducting a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Virtual Health Library databases from inception to December 31st, 2022. We employed the inverse variance method with a random effects model to calculate the effect estimate as the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We calculated the heterogeneity with the I2 statistic and performed a meta-regression analysis by age, sex, smoking, CD4 T-cells count and antiretroviral therapy. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis according to the studies’ publication date, and excluding the study with the greatest weight in the effect. The PROSPERO registry number was CRD42023401105.


The meta-analysis included 20 studies, with 7621 living with HIV and 7410 control participants. The pooled MD (95%CI) for the predicted percentage of FEV1, FVC and DLCO were −3.12 (−5.17, −1.06); p=0.003, −1.51 (−3.04, 0.02); p=0.05, and −5.26 (−6.64, −3.87); p<0.001, respectively. The pooled MD for FEV1/FVC was −0.01 (−0.02, −0.01); p=0.002. In all cases, there was a considerable heterogeneity. The meta-regression analysis showed that among studies heterogeneity was not explained by patient age, smoking, CD4 T-cells count or antiretroviral therapy.


Pulmonary function tests are impaired in people living with HIV, independently of age, smoking, CD4 T-cells count, and geographical region.

Human immunodeficiency virus
Pulmonary function test


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